From Exploration to Mine

Picture. Value chain from exploration to mining

Exploration permit or mining claim
Application for an exclusivity to investigate whether a selected area contains metal ores. Claim allows you to protect the investment made in the exploration phase. Commitment includes the restoration of land and payment to the landowner.

Geological analysis
Analysis of surface samples or drill cores to obtain additional information about the quality of the deposit.

Diamond core drilling, RC-drilling or sludge drilling in order to gather information that can be used for geological modelling on the deposit levels and distribution.

Test mining and pilot tests
The mining operation on a small scale in order to obtain reliable results of the selected process solution and to verify geological data as an indication of future regular operation.

Feasibility studies
Calculation of the economic performance of mining operations, necessary to obtain financing for the operation.

Production of metal-/mineralconcentrate processed further to metal in the smelter.


Abbreviations and Units of Measure

   1 troy ounce (tr oz) = 31.103 grams
   1 kilogram (kg) = 32.15 troy ounce
   1 troy pound = 12 troy ounces      
   1 carat (metric) (diamond)            = 200 milligrams 
   1 avoirdupois ounce = 28.35 grams
   1 flask (fl) = 76 pounds, avoirdupois
   1 karat (gold) = one twenty-fourth part
   1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2046 pounds, avoirdupois 
   1 long ton (lt) = 2,240 pounds, avoirdupois
   1 long ton unit (ltu)
      · ong calcined ton (lct)
      · long dry ton (ldt)
= 1% of 1 long ton or 22.4 pounds avoirdupois
   · excludes water of hydration
   · excludes excess free moisture
   1 metric ton (t) = 2,204.6 pounds, avoirdupois or 1,000 kilograms
   1 metric ton (t) = 1.1023 short ton
   1 metric ton unit (mtu)
      · metric dry ton (mdt)
= 1% of 1 metric ton or 10 kilograms
    · excludes excess free moisture
   1 pound (lb) = 453.6 grams
   1 short ton (st) = 2,000 pounds, avoirdupois
   1 short ton unit (stu)
      · short dry ton (sdt)
= 1% of 1 short ton or 20 pounds, avoirdupois
   · excludes excess free moisture


(Avoirdupois is a system of measuring weight based on the fact that sixteen ounces are in a pound. Avoirdupois ounce is about 28.35 grams, not 31,103 grams as troy ounce. The metric system is based on grams, and the avoirdupois system is based on pounds.)